COVID-19, Prevention

Vaccine Development Pipeline

Introduction

  • Genetic structure of SARS-CoV-2 released on 11 Jan 2020
  • Several vaccine candidates (anti-spike; "S" protein) created within 2 days of release of the structure
  • At least 115 vaccine candidates have been developed; 78 are confirmed and active.
  • Types of vaccine products include:  
    • RNA
    • DNA
    • Virus-like particles (VLPs)
    • Peptides
    • Viral vectors (replicating and non-replicating)
    • Recombinant Proteins
    • Live attenuated viruses
    • Inactivated viruses
  • RNA and DNA vaccines have the greatest ability for rapid, large-scale manufacturing (scale-up) and greater flexibility for antigen manipulation.  Viral vectors have a large level of protein expression, stability, and strong immune responses. Recombinant protein technology is widely used for many existing diseases, so lots of experience and existing production capacity.

Vaccine Development Pipeline

  • Currently in Clinical Trials
Platform / Type of Candidate

Development
Phase

Maker Comments

Lipid Nanoparticle (LNP)- encapsulated mRNA

mRNA-1273

Phase 3 enrollment announced 27 Jul 2020 (30,000 participants at 89 U.S. sites)
NCT04470427
NCT04283461

Moderna / NIAID Encodes for the "S" Protein. Preliminary report of two-dose regimens in a dose-escalation study of 45 adults age 18-55; high titers of specific neutralizing antibodies in a dose response with CD4 T-cell response also present; acceptable safety profile (N Engl J Med online 14 Jul 2020, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2022483)

Chimpanzee adenovirus vectored

ChAdOx1 nCov-19

Phase 1/2

Oxford / Astra Zeneca Expresses "S" protein of SARS CoV-2. Single blind RCT (1077 participants) meningococcal vaccine as control; specific antibody and T-cell observed with prime-boost regimen; acceptable safety profile reported)(Lancet online 20 Jul 2020)

Adenovirus Type 5 

Ad5-nCoV

Phase 2 CanSino Biological Inc./Beijing Institute of Biotechnology

Replication deficient Viral Vector. Expresses "S" Protein. Phase 2 double blind, placebo controlled RCT (603 participants) of two  single dose regimens (1 × 1011 viral particles per mL or 5 × 1010 viral particles per mL) vs placebo reported safe with significant immune responses both anitbody and cell-mediated (Lancet online 20 Jul 2020)

DNA plasmid vaccine Electroporation device

INO-4800

Phase 1 
NCT04336410
Inovio Pharmaceuticals Same technology used for vaccine candidates against Lassa, Nipah, HIV, Filovirus, HPV, Zika

Hepatitis B

Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virus grown in  Vero-cell

Phase 1
ChiCTR2000031809 

Beijing Institute of Biological Products/Wuhan Institute of Biological Products  Inactivated SARS virus

Lipid Nanoparticle (LNP)- encapsulated mRNA

BNT162b1

Phase 1

Phase 1/2               NCT04368728

BioNTech

Pfizer

Expresses 'S' Protein Trimer

Strong neutralizing antibody responses in Phase I study 

  •  At least 70 other vaccine candidates in preclinical development listed on WHO website